"2016 Olympics" redirects here. For the Winter Youth Olympics, see 2016 Winter Youth Olympics . "Rio 2016" redirects here. For the 2016 Paralympic Games, see 2016 Summer Paralympics .
|Part of a series on
|2016 Summer Olympics [show]
The 2016 Summer Olympics ( Portuguese : Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016 ), [ 1 ] officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad , and commonly known as Rio 2016 , are a major international multi-sport event that will take place in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil , from 5 to 21 August 2016. More than 10,500 athletes from 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) will take part in this sporting event. [ 2 ] The games will feature 28 sports — including rugby sevens and golf , which were added by the International Olympic Committee in 2009. These sporting events will take place across 33 venues spread across four regions of the city namely – Barra , Copacabana , Deodoro , and Maracanã . [ 2 ]
The host city of Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session held in Copenhagen, Denmark , on 2 October 2009. The other finalists were Madrid, Spain ; Chicago, United States ; and Tokyo , Japan . Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics, the second city in Latin America to host the event after Mexico City in 1968 , and the first since 2000 in the Southern Hemisphere .
Main article: Bids for the 2016 Summer Olympics President Lula (center with flag of Brazil ), Brazilian footballer Pelé (hugging) and then-governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro Sérgio Cabral (right) when, in 2009, Rio was announced as host.
The bidding process for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was officially launched on 16 May 2007. [ 3 ] The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago , Madrid , Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo (which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020 ). The IOC did not promote Doha to the Candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, due to their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut. [ 4 ]
Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids . The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. [ 5 ]
Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media.
Ultimately, you are communicating with just 115 people and each one has influencers and pressure groups but you are still speaking to no more than about 1,500 people, perhaps 5,000 in the broadest sense. It is not just about getting ads out there but it is about a targeted and very carefully planned campaign.
—?Jon Tibbs, a consultant on the Tokyo bid [ 6 ]
The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Chicago and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics. Failed bids from other South American cities include Buenos Aires ( 1936 , 1956 , 1968 , 2004 ), Cali ( 1976 , 1988 , 2004 ), and Brasília , which withdrew during the 2000 Summer Olympic bidding process .
Development and preparation
Map of Rio de Janeiro showing the competition venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Engenhão (Estádio Nilton Santos) , site of athletic events . Maracanã Stadium , site of the opening and closing ceremonies, in addition to the finals of football.
On 26 June 2011 it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons. [ 8 ] Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics . Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO. [ 9 ]
Venues and infrastructure
Main article: Venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics
Barra da Tijuca will host most of the venues of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. The rest will be located in three other zones: Copacabana Beach , Maracanã and Deodoro ; Barra da Tijuca will also house the Olympic Village.
Rio's historical downtown is undergoing a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha . [ 10 ] It covers 5 km 2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aims to redevelop the port area increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio's competitiveness position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km 2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants.
Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems have received more attention. A police helicopter was shot down over a favela during one of the city's many drug wars, and the pilot was killed in the incident. [ 11 ] Rio's mayor has admitted that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the Games from violence. However, he also said that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process. [ 12 ] The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games .
The IOC, however, has expressed optimism regarding the ability of the city and the nation of Brazil to address these concerns, saying that seven years is enough time for Rio de Janeiro to clean up its crime problem. [ 13 ] IOC spokesman Mark Adams told The Associated Press, "we have confidence in their capacity to deliver a safe Games in seven years. Security is of course a very important aspect of any Olympic Games no matter where it is in the world. This is of course entirely under the national, regional and city authorities." [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva , former president of Brazil, noted that the city has hosted other high-profile events without major incidents, for example the 2007 Pan American Games . [ 17 ]
Rio de Janeiro is planning to pacify local neighbourhoods, or favelas . Community-based Police Pacification Units (UPPs) will be used to build trust in individual communities through the use of street patrols and civic work. [ 18 ] Moreover, The Regional Institute of Public Safety reported that the homicide rate of Rio de Janeiro for the first five months of 2012 was at its lowest in the past 21 years, with 10.9 homicides for every 100,000 habitants. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Nonetheless, despite the decline in homicides and human rights abuses, Human Rights Watch urged Brazil to investigate extrajudicial killings . [ 21 ]
Concerns over completion
Maracanãzinho Gymnasium , site of volleyball. Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon , site of rowing and canoeing . BRT map to the Olympics. Bus Rapid Transit in Rio de Janeiro International Airport . The system connects the airport with the Olympic areas. Rio de Janeiro Metro map, including the connection with the Olympic area in Barra da Tijuca . Rio de Janeiro Metro .
On 9 May 2014, the London Evening Standard reported IOC vice-president John Coates calling Brazil's preparations "the worst I've experienced" and went on to claim that construction and infrastructure projects were severely behind schedule. "The IOC has formed a special task force to try to speed up preparations but the situation is critical on the ground," the paper quoted him as saying, concluding that such an intervention was "unprecedented". [ 22 ] Coates' concerns had previously been reported elsewhere in the media. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
Phase I – Applicant City
Revenue Federal Government State Government Total
Phase II – Candidate City
Revenue Public funds
Revenue Private funds
|TAM Airlines ¹
¹ TAM Airlines contributed with R$1,233,726.00 in the form of discounts in air tickets.
Note: The residual balance was used to fund the first months of operation of Rio 2016 Organizing Committee. [ 25 ]
Olympics/City Investment Public Private
Note: The total investment in Olympic park and public transport in Rio to the 2016 Summer Olympics. [ 26 ]
The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, and all will be sold in Brazilian Reals (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets will be sold; 200,000 tickets less compared to the 2012 Summer Olympics , because the size of many arenas is smaller. Ticket prices range from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets will be available for BRL 70 or less. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The street events could be watched along the route for free.
Football venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Main article: 2016 Summer Olympics torch relay
The torch relay will begin its Brazilian journey on 3 May 2016. The torch relay will visit more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District ), after the Greek phase ( Olympia to Athens ), the Brazilian phase starts in the capital Brasília , and the last part to be held in Rio de Janeiro city). [ 29 ]
Main articles: 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony and 2016 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations
The opening ceremony will take place in the Maracanã Stadium on 5 August 2016.
The 2016 Summer Olympic program features 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.
See also: 121st IOC Session
There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball , which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate , squash , golf , roller sports , and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009. [ 30 ]
In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens —a seven-player version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball, the board approved golf as a result of consultation. The final decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon said that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam , would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events. [ 33 ]
The International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing , [ 34 ] but this decision was reversed in November. [ 35 ] The IOC announced in January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events , following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that the cycling's governing body had covered up doping. [ 36 ]
In contrast to the exception during the 2012 Olympics, the International Gymnastics Federation announced that these Games will have a gala event for gymnastics. [ 37 ]
Participating National Olympic Committees
The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games . [ 38 ] As host nation Brazil has also received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] As of 12 December 2015, 146 out of the current 206 NOCs have qualified at least one athlete. Kosovo and South Sudan are expected to debut in the Olympic Games.
Amid the European migrant crisis , the IOC will allow refugee athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag . In previous Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete due to their inability to represent their home NOCs. [ 41 ]
In November 2015, Russia was suspended from all international athletic competitions, including the 2016 Summer Olympics, by the IAAF following a World Anti-Doping Agency report into doping in athletics. [ 42 ]